2011 m. gegužės 4 d., trečiadienis

Definitions of Intelligence

1.      Intelligence: the capacity to understand the world, think rationally and use resources effectively when faced with challenges. 
2.      g or g-factor: the single, general factor for mental ability assumed to underlie intelligence in some early theories of intelligence.
3.      Fluid intelligence: intelligence that reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning and memory. 
4.      Crystallized intelligence: the accumulation of information, skills and strategies that are learned through experience and can be applied in problem-solving situations.
5.      Theory of multiple intelligence: Gardner’s intelligence theory that proposes that there are eight distinct spheres of intelligence. 
6.      Practical intelligence: according to Stenberg, intelligence related to overall success in living. 
7.      Emotional intelligence: the set of skills that underline the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression and regulation of emotions. 
8.      Intelligence tests: tests devised to quantify a person’s level of intelligence. 
9.      Mental age: the average age of individual who achieve a particular level of performance on a test. 
10.  Intelligence quotient (IQ): a score that takes into account and individual‘s mental and chronological ages. 
11.  Achievement test: a test designed to determined a person’s level of knowledge in a given subject area. 
12.  Aptitude test: a test designed to predict a person’s ability in a particular area or line of work. 
13.  Reliability: the property by which tests measure consistently what they are trying to measure.
14.  Validity: the property by which tests actually measure what they are supposed to measure.
15.  Norma: standard of test performance that permit the comparison of one person’s score on a test with the scores of other individuals who have taken the same test.
16.  Mental retardation (or intellectual disability) – a condition characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. 
17.  Fetal alcohol syndrome: the most common cause of mental retardation in newborns, occurring when the mother uses alcohol during pregnancy.
18.  Familial retardation: mental retardation in which no apparent biological defect exists but there is a history of retardation in the family.
19.  Intellectually gifted: the 2 to 4 percent of the population who have IQ scores greater than 130.
20.  Culture-fair IQ test: a test does not discriminate against the members of any minority group.
21.  Heritability: a measure of degree to which a characteristic is related to genetic, inherited factors.

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